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QUESTION 46
Please study the exhibit carefully.
When you configure DHCP snooping, which ports should be configured as trusted ?
A. port E only
B. port A only
C. ports B and C
D. ports A, B, C, and E
E. ports A, B, and C
F. ports B, C, and E

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Understanding DHCP Snooping and Mitigating DHCP Attacks DHCP snooping is a switch feature that determines which switch ports can respond to DHCP requests. To accomplish this configuration, you must configure a port as either trusted or untrusted. Untrusted ports can source requests only, whereas trusted ports can source DHCP replies. This will help you prevent the attack by controlling where the DHCP server is and the path that you expect DHCP replies to come from. Reference: CCSP SNRS Quick Reference Sheets
QUESTION 47
Refer to the DMVPN topology diagram in the exhibit. Which two statements are correct? (Choose two.)

A. The hub router Certkiller 1 needs to have EIGRP split horizon disabled.
B. At the Certkiller 4 router, the next hop to reach the 192.168.0.0/24 network is 172.17.0.1.
C. The spoke routers Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 4 act as the NHRP servers for resolving the remote spoke physical interface IP address.
D. At the Certkiller 2, the next hop to reach the 192.168.1.0/24 network is 172.17.0.1.
E. Before a spoke-to-spoke tunnel can be built, the spoke router needs to send an NHRP query to the hub to resolve the remote spoke router physical interface IP address.
F. At the Certkiller 4, the next hop to reach the 192.168.2.0/24 network is 10.0.0.1.

Correct Answer: AE Section: (none)
Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: For spoke-to-spoke DMVPN networks, a unique challenge exists because the spokes cannot directly exchange information with one another, even though they are on the same logical subnet. This means that the hub router needs to advertise subnets from the other spokes on the same subnet. The IP routing rule known as split horizon prevents the hub from doing this: SNRS_ROUTER(config-router)#interface tunnel 0 SNRS_ROUTER(config-if)#no ip split-horizon eigrp 1 Reference: CCSP SNRS Quick Reference Sheets NHRP-A client and server protocol where the hub is the server and the spokes are the clients. The hub maintains an NHRP database of the public interface addresses of the each spoke. Each spoke registers its real address when it boots and queries the NHRP database for real addresses of the destination spokes in order to build direct tunnels. Reference: Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide, Release 12.4
QUESTION 48
What does this command do?
Certkiller 3(config)# ip port-map user-1 port tcp 4001

A. enables the Cisco IOS Firewall to inspect TCP port 4001 as part of the ip inspect name xxx TCP inspection rule
B. enables NBAR to recognize a user-defined application on TCP port 4001
C. enables application firewall inspection on a user-defined application that is mapped to TCP port 4001
D. defines a user application in the PAM table where the user-defined application is called “user-1” and that application is mapped to TCP port 4001

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
User-Defined Port Mapping
Network services or applications that use non-standard ports require user-defined entries in the PAM table.
For example, your network might run HTTP services on the non-standard port 8000 instead of on the
system-defined default port (port 80). In this case, you can use PAM to map port 8000 with HTTP services.
If HTTP services run on other ports, use PAM to create additional port mapping entries. After you define a
port mapping, you can overwrite that entry at a later time by simply mapping that specific port with a
different application.
Configuring PAM
To configure PAM, use the ip port-map command in global configuration mode:
QUESTION 49
Which two commands are used to only allow SSH traffic to the router Eth0 interface and deny other management traffic (BEEP, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SNMP, Telnet, TFTP) to the router interfaces? (Choose two.)
A. interface eth0
B. service-policy type port-filter input policy-name
C. control-plane host
D. line vty 0 5 transport input ssh
E. policy-map type port-filter policy-name
F. management-interface eth0 allow ssh

Correct Answer: CF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Prerequisites
IP Cisco Express Forwarding must be enabled before a management interface can be configured.
SUMMARY STEPS

1.
enable

2.
configure terminal

3.
control-plane host

4.
management-interface interface allow protocols Configures an interface to be a management interface, which will accept management protocols, and specifies which management protocols are allowed. interface-Name of the interface that you are designating as a management interface. protocols-Management protocols you want to allow on the designated management interface. BEEP FTP HTTP HTTPS SSH, v1 and v2 SNMP, all versions Telnet TFTP
QUESTION 50
When configuring ACS 4.0 Network Access Profiles (NAPs), which three things can be used to determine how an access request is classified and mapped to a profile? (Choose three.)
A. the protocol types
B. Network Access Filters (NAFs)
C. RADIUS VSAs
D. the authentication method
E. RADIUS Authorization Components (RACs)
F. advanced filtering

Correct Answer: ABF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Defining User Access Requests You use the Profile Setup Page to define how ACS classifies access requests. You can use one or all of the following classification methods: NAFs Protocol Types Advanced Filtering You use these three conditions to determine how ACS classifies an access request and maps it to a profile. The profile is selected when all the selected conditions match. For each condition, the value Any always matches the condition. For example, if you create a NAF for wireless and then select the Aironet Protocol type, only devices with the protocol types in the wireless NAF will be selected for filtering.
QUESTION 51
Please study the exhibit carefully. Why is auth-proxy not working?

A. The ip auth-proxy HQU interface configuration command is missing the in direction option.
B. The local username and password database is not configured.
C. AAA accounting is not enabled.
D. The aaa authorization command is not correct.
E. HTTPS is not enabled on the router.
F. The AAA authentication method-list is not configured.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Enable the AAA process on the router. Use the aaa authorization auth-proxy command to authorize traffic via the Authentication Proxy AAA server: SNRS_ROUTER(config)#aaa new-model SNRS_ROUTER(config)#aaa authentication login default group radius SNRS_ROUTER(config)#aaa authorization auth-proxy default group radius
QUESTION 52
SIMULATION Network topology exhibit You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Certkiller .com has a server Certkiller A connected to their network infrasctructure through a switch Certkiller A. Certkiller .com is using VLANs to improve security, nevertheless you notice that there is a CAM table overflow attack in progress through port fa0/12.. The attacker is spoofing MAC addresses through the Certkiller A switch. You are required to reconfigure the switch so that the attacker has no change of overflowing the CAM table. If more than one MAC address is larened on a port, the port should sut down. The Certkiller A enable password is Certkiller

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Certkiller A# config t Certkiller A(config)#interface fast0/12 Certkiller A(config-if)# switchport port-security Certkiller A(config-if)# switchport port-security maximum 1 Certkiller A(config-if)# switchport port-security violation shutdown
Certkiller .com, Scenario
Network topology exhibit

Simulation output: *** Missing ***
You work as a network technician at Certkiller .com. Your boss, miss Certkiller, has ordered you to
troubleshoot a Certkiller branch of network. You need to answer some questions regarding this network
uysing the network topology and the output you retrieve from Cisco devices on the network.

Certkiller .com (4 Questions)

QUESTION 53
Where are the signatures being loaded from?
A. NVRAM
B. Flash
C. TFTP server
D. Built-in signatures
E. There are no signatures

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 54
Which interface is the rule applied to.
A. There is no rule.
B. Fa0/0
C. Fa0/1
D. Fa0/2
E. S0/0
F. S0/1
G. S0/2

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 55
How many signatures are loaded?
A. 0
B. 1
C. 81
D. 82
E. 83
F. 100
G. 1000
H. 10000
I. An infinite number

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 56
How many total inactive signatures are there?
A. 0
B. 1
C. 81
D. 82
E. 83
F. 100
G. 1000
H. 10000
I. An infinite number

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 57
A new Certkiller switch has been installed and you wish to secure it. Which Cisco Catalyst IOS command can be used to mitigate a CAM table overflow attack?
A. switch(config-if)# port-security maximum 1
B. switch(config)# switchport port-security
C. switch(config-if)# port-security
D. switch(config-if)# switchport port-security maximum 1
E. switch(config-if)# switchport access F. switch(config-if)# access maximum 1

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Enabling and Configuring Port Security:
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to restrict input to an interface by limiting and
identifying MAC addresses of the stations allowed to access the port:
To ensure that only a single station’s MAC address is allowed on a given port, specify the value of the
“switchport port-security maximum” command to 1. This will safeguard against CAM overflow attacks.
Reference:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps5206/
products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00801 c

QUESTION 58
SIMULATION
The following diagram displays a portion of the Certkiller network:
You work for the Certkiller .com, which has a server connected to their infrastructure through a switch named Houston. Although Certkiller .com uses VLANs for security, an attacker is trying to overflow the CAM table by sending out spoofed MAC addresses through a port on the same switch as the server. Your task is to configure the switch to protect the switch from a CAM table overflow attack. For purposes of this test, we will assume that the attacker is plugged into port Fa0/12. The topology is pictured in the exhibit. The enable password for the switch is Certkiller . The following passwords have been assigned to the Houston switch: Console passwords: california VTY lines 0-4 password: city Enable passwords: Certkiller Start the simulation by clicking on the host.
A.
B.
C.
D.

Correct Answer: Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Switch1(config)# interface fastethernet0/12 Switch1(config-if)# switchport mode access Switch1(config-if)# switchport port-security Switch1(config-if)# switchport port-security maximum 1 Switch1(config-if)# end Enabling and Configuring Port Security: Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to restrict input to an interface by limiting and identifying MAC addresses of the stations allowed to access the port:

To ensure that only a single station’s MAC address is allowed on a given port, specify the value of the
“switchport port-security maximum” command to 1. This will safeguard against CAM overflow attacks.
Reference:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps5206/
products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00801 c

QUESTION 59
You want to increase the security of a newly installed switch. Which Cisco Catalyst IOS command is used to mitigate a MAC spoofing attack?
A. switch(config-if)# port-security mac-address 0000.ffff.aaaa
B. switch(config)# switchport port-security mac-address 0000.ffff.aaaa
C. switch(config-if)# switchport port-security mac-address 0000.ffff.aaaa
D. switch(config)# port-security mac-address 0000.ffff.aaaa
E. switch(config-if)# mac-address 0000.ffff.aaaa
F. switch(config)# security mac-address 0000.ffff.aaaa

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: You can use the port security feature to restrict input to an interface by limiting and identifying MAC addresses of the workstations that are allowed to access the port. When you assign secure MAC addresses to a secure port, the port does not forward packets with source addresses outside the group of defined addresses. If you limit the number of secure MAC addresses to one and assign a single secure MAC address, the workstation attached to that port is assured the full bandwidth of the port. If a port is configured as a secure port and the maximum number of secure MAC addresses is reached, when the MAC address of a workstation attempting to access the port is different from any of the identified secure MAC addresses, a security violation occurs. If a workstation with a secure MAC that is address configured or learned on one secure port attempts to access another secure port, a violation is flagged. After you have set the maximum number of secure MAC addresses on a port, the secure addresses are included in an address table in one of these ways: You can configure all secure MAC addresses by using the switchport port-security mac-address mac_address interface configuration command. You can allow the port to dynamically configure secure MAC addresses with the MAC addresses of connected devices. You can configure a number of addresses and allow the rest to be dynamically configured. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/ products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00800d a Note: there is no ability to use “copy running-config startup-config” or “write memory”, so each solution should use the “end” command in config mode to save the current configuration.
QUESTION 60
The security administrator for Certkiller Inc. is working on defending the network against SYN flooding attacks. Which of the following are tools to protect the network from TCP SYN attacks?
A. Route authentication
B. Encryption
C. ACLs
D. TCP intercept
E. None of the above.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The TCP intercept feature implements software to protect TCP servers from TCP SYN-flooding attacks, which are a type of denial-of-service attack. A SYN-flooding attack occurs when a hacker floods a server with a barrage of requests for connection. Because these messages have unreachable return addresses, the connections cannot be established. The resulting volume of unresolved open connections eventually overwhelms the server and can cause it to deny service to valid requests, thereby preventing legitimate users from connecting to a web site, accessing e-mail, using FTP service, and so on. The TCP intercept feature helps prevent SYN-flooding attacks by intercepting and validating TCP connection requests. In intercept mode, the TCP intercept software intercepts TCP synchronization (SYN) packets from clients to servers that match an extended access list. The software establishes a connection with the client on behalf of the destination server, and if successful, establishes the connection with the server on behalf of the client and knits the two half-connections together transparently. Thus, connection attempts from unreachable hosts will never reach the server. The software continues to intercept and forward packets throughout the duration of the connection. The number of SYNs per second and the number of concurrent connections proxied depends on the platform, memory, processor, and other factors Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1835/
products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00800 c
QUESTION 61
Which of the following IOS commands will you advise the Certkiller trainee technician to use when setting the timeout for router terminal line?
A. exec-timeout minute [seconds]
B. line-timeout minute [seconds]
C. timeout console minute [seconds]
D. exec-time minutes [seconds]

Correct Answer: A Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The exec timeout command prevents unauthorized users from misusing abandoned sessions (for instance if the network administrator went on vacation and left an enabled login session active on his desktop system). There is a trade-off here between security (shorter timeouts) and usability (longer timeouts). Check your local policies and operational needs to determine the best value. In most cases, this should be no more than 10 minutes. To configure the timeout values, perform the following steps: router(config)# line INSTANCE router(config-line)# exec-timeout $(EXEC_TIMEOUT) router(config-line)# exit Reference: http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/793/access_dial/comm_server.html
QUESTION 62
The Certkiller network is implementing IBNS. In a Cisco Identity-Based Networking Service (IBNS) implementation, the endpoint that is seeking network access is known as what?
A. Host
B. Authentication
C. PC
D. Authentication server
E. Client
F. Supplicant

Correct Answer: F Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
In IBNS, the supplicant is the end device that is seeking network access. The supplicant is a software
component on the user workstation that answers a challenge from the authenticator. Supplicant
functionality may also be implemented on network devices to authenticate to upstream devices.
Reference: Securing Networks with Cisco Routers and Switches (SNRS) Courseware Page 3-30.

QUESTION 63
A new IBNS system is being installed in the Certkiller network. The Cisco Identity-Based Networking Services (IBNS) solution is based on which two standard implementations? (Choose two.)
A. TACACS+
B. RADIUS
C. 802.11
D. 802.1x
E. 802.1q
F. IPSec

Correct Answer: BD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The Cisco IBNS solution is based on standard RADIUS and 802.1X implementations. It interoperates with
all IETF authentication servers that comply with these two standards. Cisco has enhanced the Cisco
Secure ACS to provide a tight integration across all Cisco switches.
Reference: Securing Networks with Cisco Routers and Switches (SNRS) Courseware Page 3-24.

QUESTION 64
You wish to configure 802.1X port control on your switch. Which three keywords are used with the dot1x port-control command? (Choose three.)
A. enable
B. force-authorized
C. force-unathorized
D. authorized
E. unauthorized
F. auto

Correct Answer: BCF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
To enable manual control of the authorization state on a port, use the “dot1x port-control” command. To
return to the default setting, use the no form of this command. dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized |
force-unauthorized} no dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized} Syntax Description:
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps4324/ products_command_reference_chapter09186a00803
QUESTION 65
The Certkiller network has rolled out an 802.1X based system. In an 802.1x implementation, the authenticator acts as a gateway to which device?
A. Host
B. Authenticator
C. PC
D. Authentication server
E. Client
F. Supplicant

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
The table below outlines the definitions for the authentication server and the authenticator:
Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/ products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a008020
QUESTION 66
The Certkiller network is using an 802.1X implementation. In an 802.1x implementation, the supplicant directly connects to, and obtains network access permission through which device?
A. Host
B. Authenticator
C. PC
D. Authentication server
E. Client
F. Supplicant

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In Identity Based Networking Services, the supplicant is the end device that is seeking network access. The supplicant is a software component on the user workstation that answers a challenge from the authenticator. The authenticator is the entity at one end of a point-to-point LAN segment that enforces host authentication. The authenticator is independent of the actual authentication method and functions only as a pass-through for the authentication exchange. It communicates with the host, submits the information from the host to the authentication server, and authorizes the host when instructed to do so by the authentication server. Reference: Securing Networks with Cisco Routers and Switches (SNRS) Courseware Page 3-30.
QUESTION 67
Which two are typical Layer 2 attacks? (Choose two.)
A. MAC spoofing
B. CAM table overflow
C. Route poisoning
D. DHCP Starvation
E. ARP Starvation
F. Spam
G. Worm Hole

Correct Answer: AB Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Layer 2 network attacks include all of the following: CAM Table Overflow VLAN Hopping Spanning-Tree Protocol Manipulation MAC Spoofing Attack Private VLAN Attacks DHCP Starvation Cisco Discovery Protocol VLAN Trunking Protocol IEEE 802.1x MAC Spoofing Attack MAC spoofing attacks involve the use of a known MAC address of another host to attempt to make the target switch forward frames destined for the remote host to the network attacker. By sending a single frame with the other host’s source Ethernet address, the network attacker overwrites the CAM table entry so that the switch forwards packets destined for the host to the network attacker. Until the host sends traffic it will not receive any traffic. When the host sends out traffic, the CAM table entry is rewritten once more so that it moves back to the original port. CAM Table Overflow: The CAM table in a switch contains information such as the MAC addresses available on a given physical port of a switch, as well as the associated VLAN parameters. When a Layer 2 switch receives a frame, the switch looks in the CAM table for the destination MAC address. If an entry exists for the MAC address in the CAM table, the switch forwards the frame to the port designated in the CAM table for that MAC address. If the MAC address does not exist in the CAM table, the switch forwards the frame out every port on the switch, effectively acting like a hub. If a response is seen, the switch updates the CAM table. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns340/ns394/ns171/ns128/ networking_solutions_white_paper09186a00801
QUESTION 68
You want to increase the security levels at layer 2 within the Certkiller switched LAN. Which three are typical Layer 2 attack mitigation techniques? (Select three)
A. Switch security
B. Port security
C. ARP snooping
D. DHCP snooping
E. Port snooping
F. 802.1x authentication

Correct Answer: BDF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: Network Attack Mitigation: Use the port security commands to mitigate MAC-spoofing attacks. The port security command provides the capability to specify the MAC address of the system connected to a particular port. The command also provides the ability to specify an action to take if a port-security violation occurs. However, as with the CAM table-overflow attack mitigation, specifying a MAC address on every port is an unmanageable solution. Hold-down timers in the interface configuration menu can be used to mitigate ARP spoofing attacks by setting the length of time an entry will stay in the ARP cache. However, hold-down timers by themselves are insufficient. Modification of the ARP cache expiration time on all end systems would be required as well as static ARP entries. Even in a small network this approach does not scale well. One solution would be to use private VLANs to help mitigate these network attacks. Another solution that can be used to mitigate various ARP-based network exploits is the use of DHCP snooping along with Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI). These Catalyst feature validate ARP packets in a network and permit the interception, logging, and discarding of ARP packets with invalid MAC address to IP address bindings. DHCP Snooping provides security by filtering trusted DHCP messages and then using these messages to build and maintain a DHCP snooping binding table. DHCP Snooping considers DHCP messages originating from any user facing port that is not a DHCP server port or an upling to a DHCP server as untrusted. From a DHCP Snooping perspective these untrusted, user-facing ports should not send DHCP server type responses such as DHCPOffer, DHCPAck, or DHCPNak. Untrusted DHCP messages are messages received from outside the network or firewall. The DHCP snooping binding table contains the MAC address, IP address, lease time, binding type, VLAN number, and interface information corresponding to the local untrusted interfaces of a switch; it does not contain information regarding hosts interconnected with a trusted interface. An untrusted interface is an interface configured to receive messages from outside the network or firewall. A trusted interface is an interface that is configured to receive only messages from within the network. The DHCP snooping binding table can contain both dynamic as well as static MAC address to IP address bindings. Another effective mitigation strategy is to deploy 802.1x on access switches and wireless access points to ensure that all access to the network infrastructure requires authentication. Consider deploying PEAP for use with wireless LANs. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns340/ns394/ns171/ns128/ networking_solutions_white_paper09186a00801
QUESTION 69
The Certkiller security administrator is in charge of creating a security policy for the company. Which two statements about the creation of a security policy are true? (Choose two)
A. It helps Chief Information Officers determine the return on investment of network security at Certkiller Inc.
B. It defines how to track down and prosecute policy offenders at Certkiller Inc.
C. It helps determine which vendor security equipment or software is better than others.
D. It clears the general security framework so you can implement network security at Certkiller Inc.
E. It provides a process to audit existing network security at Certkiller Inc.
F. It defines which behavior is and is not allowed at Certkiller Inc.

Correct Answer: EF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Reasons to create a network security policy:

1.
Provides a process to audit existing network security

2.
Provides a general security framework for implementing network security

3.
Defines which behavior is and is not allowed

4.
Often helps determine which tools and procedures are needed for the organization

5.
Helps communicate consensus among a group of key decision-makers and defines responsibilities of users and administrators

6.
Defines a process for handling network security incidents

7.
Enables global security implementation and enforcement

8.
Creates a basis for legal action if necessary Reference: Managing Cisco Network Security, Cisco Press, page 43
QUESTION 70
The Certkiller routers have all been upgraded to a firewall feature set IOS. What are three main components of the Cisco IOS Firewall feature set? (Choose three)
A. Context-based Access Control
B. Port security
C. Authentication proxy
D. Authentication, authorization, and accounting
E. Intrusion Prevention System
F. Neighbor router authentication

Correct Answer: ACE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: The Cisco IOS firewall feature set contains the following features: Context-Based Access Control (CBAC)-CBAC creates temporary openings in access lists at firewall interfaces. These openings are created when specified traffic exits your internal network through the firewall. The openings allow returning traffic (that would normally be blocked) and additional data channels to enter your internal network back through the firewall. The traffic is allowed back through the firewall only if the traffic is part of the same session as the original traffic that triggered CBAC when exiting through the firewall. Cisco IOS Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)-The Cisco IOS IPS feature restructures the existing Cisco IOS Intrusion Detection System (IDS), allowing customers to choose to load the default, built-in signatures or to load a Signature Definition File (SDF) called attack-drop.sdf onto the router. The attack-drop.sdf file contains 118 high-fidelity Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) signatures, providing customers with the latest available detection of security threats. Cisco IOS Firewall Authentication Proxy-Authentication proxy provides dynamic, per-user authentication and authorization, authenticating users against industry standard TACACS+ and RADIUS authentication protocols. Per-user authentication and authorization of connections provide more robust protection against network attacks. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps5854/prod_configuration_guide09186a00802c9587.html

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